Complex Systems

A Complex system is a collection of agents (i.e., objects, actors, or quantities) and the relationships among them, which when taken together, form an entity that can be represented as a distinct category of events in the environment.

Autumn visitors to “The Flume” in New Hampshire, US.

Because interactions occur among agents at a lower level of scale than the overall system, these interactions are called fine-grained. An example of this is how interactions among individual genes results in the expression of traits in the phenotype of the relevant organism.

In the case of human beings, individuals interact with others to form inter-generational families, groups of only distantly related individuals, firms, and governments and to create art, evolve scientific knowledge, develop technologies, and discover economic and political innovations.
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